Fig. 2 — Position when starting to "penetrate the mass."
Fig. 3 — Mass has been penetrated.
Fig. 4 — Position just prior to lifting mass.
Fig. 5 — Mass has been lifted.
ex G. Townsend Harley, “A Study of Shoveling as Applied to Mining.” Transactions of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers 61 (1919): 147-187, discussion continued at 706-708
“Stoping methods in which shoveling plays an important part are gradually being replaced by other and cheaper methods. But there will always be considerable shoveling done underground in stopes as well as in drifts, tunnels, winzes and shafts.
It was thought that... the men were not producing the tonnage that they should, so, with the consent of the management, the author undertook to determine how the general efficiency of the underground shoveling could be improved.
This paper discusses and draws conclusions from several thousand time-study readings, taken both on the surface and in the mines for nearly a year...”
performance; stoping; G. Townsend Harley, “A Study of Shoveling as Applied to Mining” (1919)