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telegraphic codes

1845 Secret Corresponding Vocabulary generalFrancis O. J. Smith
1845 The Telegraph Dictionary, and Seamen’s Signal Book signal, generalHenry J. Rogers
1847 Telegraphic Congressional Reporter.
(links direct to internet archive)
news reporting Baltimore. John Wills
1852 The Brachial Telegraphnautical and miscellaneous Capt. Robert W. Jenks
1853 The Traveler’s Vade Mecum generalA. C. Baldwin
1866 Diccionario telegrafico governmentImprenta Imperial, Mexico
1868 Bolton’s Patent Code general (figure)Francis John Bolton, London
1868 O. B. Graham & Co.’s Telegraphic Code, New Orleans cottonManchester, New Orleans
1869 Universal Code for Telegraphing by Cypher figureJF, Liverpool
1870 Telegraph Code, to Ensure Secresy in the Transmission of Telegrams figureRobert Slater
1871 Private Telegraphic Code. R. G. Musgrove & Son. cottonNew Orleans and Liverpool
1871 Code [of abbreviations to be used in business telegrams, by W. W. Biggs] cottonLondon
1871 Dianxin xinfa 電信新法 Chinese character codeGreat Northern Telegraph
1872 Dianbao xinshu 電報新書 Chinese character codeS. A. Viguier
1872 Watts’s Telegraphic Cypher cottonJoseph A. D. Watts and Co.
1873 ABC Telegraphic Code (first edition) generalClauson-Thue
1874 ABC Telegraphic Code (second edition) generalClauson-Thue
1874 Bloomer’s Commercial Cryptograph commercialJ. G. Bloomer, San Francisco
1874 The General Telegraph Code commercialH. R. Meyer
1875 General Commercial Telegraphic Code commercialWilliam Shephard Wetmore; Shanghae; BL copy
1875 The International Mercantile Telegraph Code commercialH. R. Meyer
1875 Watt’s Telegraphic Cypher, Revised Edition cottonin words of ten letters
1876 ABC Telegraphic Code (third edition) generalClauson-Thue
1876 Banking Telegraphy... being a Code bankingRobert Slater
1876 Three Letter Code for condensed telegraphic and inscrutably secret messages and correspondence  E. Erskine Scott; prospectus
1877 Ager’s Shipping Telegraph Code shippingGeo. Ager; London
1877 Telegraphic cypher of Julius Büttner cotton, rosinMobile, Alabama
1878 The Cotton Telegraph Code (33rd edition) cottonH. R. Meyer
1878 Telegraphic Cipher Code, Especially Adapted to the Cotton Trade cottonA. B. Shepperson
1878 A. Chesebrough’s Private Telegraphic Code shipping, charteringSan Francisco
1879 Private Telegraphic Code of Heath & Finnemore, Produce & Commission Merchants grain, produceLondon, Ontario
1879 J. R. Foster’s Private Telegraphic Code grain, brokerageMoncton, N.B.
1879 The Phillips Telegraphic Code operator’s codeWalter Polk Phillips
1879 Private Cable Code for the Timber Trade lumber, timberPrice & Pierce, London
1879 Telegraphic Codex (in) Port charges and requirements on vessels shipping, ship brokingLondon; Theodore Hunter and Jarvis Patten
1880 International Telegraphic Code cotton; figure codeJ. A. D. Watts; Liverpool
1880 Parker’s Combination Code combinationThomas Parker, Manchester
1880 14,400 Latin Words roots and inflectionsLondon
1880 ABC Telegraphic Code (fourth edition) generalClauson-Thue
1880 Ager’s Telegraphic Primer or Skeleton Telegram Code blank generalGeorge Ager
1880 The Telegram Code blank tablesG. Ager, London
1880 Private Telegraph Code of Hamilton, Fraser & Co. shippingLiverpool
1880 Maguire’s Code of Ciphers banking & commerce, cipherCharles H. J. Maquire; Quebec
1880 Commercial Telegraph Code generalH. R. Meyer; supplants International Telegraph Code
1880 Law’s mercantile cipher code generalin use by subscribers and attorneys of the Canadian Reporting and Collecting Association
1880 Appendix Telegraph Code blankH. R. Meyer
1880 Cypher Code coffeeprivate code, Phipps & Co.
1881 The A.B.C. Domestic Code generalHenry Harvey
1881 Macgregor’s Variation Tables for Code Telegraphing a figure code, for telegraphing letters A-O; and suggestions for tabulated forms (what Barto refers to as Mr Herb’s Numbers)
1881 Whittingham’s Skeleton Telegraph Code blankfor ordinary business purposes
1881 Wilson’s Ship Broker’s Telegraph Code grain, cottonship brokerage, esp. for American grain and cotton trades
1881 Private Telegraphic Code with James Adam, Son & Co., Third Edition produceLiverpool
1881 The Standard Telegraphic Cipher Code for the Cotton Trade cottonAlfred B. Shepperson, New York
1882 Telegraphic Code to insure privacy and secrecy in the transmission of telegrams bankingFrank Miller, compiler. Sacramento
1882 The Globe Commercial Telegraph Code, for the Use of Mercantile Firms generalH. R. Meyer, comp. Liverpool
1883 Scott’s Code : The Ship Owners’ Telegraphic CodeshippingReprint, with Supplement 1882 combined
1883 Telegraph Code financePreston, Kean & Co. (Chicago)
1883 The Globe Telegraph Code blankE. Garsin (London and New York)
1884 Nonpareil Telegraphic Code condenserLatin verb codewords, for figures 1 –10,000,000
1884 Cypher Code for Telegraphy AAA > ZZZThomas S. Dunn; London
1885 The Telegram Formula and Code Combiner combinationFrederic George McCutcheon
1885 Cable Code . John Crossley & Sons, Ltd. weavingcarpet weaver
1885 Telegraphic Cipher livestock, grain W.G. Press & Co., Chicago
1885 Pocket Telegraphic Code social  
1885 Sixpenny Telegrams. Scott’s Concise Commercial Codegeneralfor Inland Telegrams
1885 Telegraphic Code floral23 phrases only; The American Florist
1885 Scott’s Code shipownerssixth edition
1885 Spalding’s Telegram Guide — The Stock Exchange Speculators’ Guide to Cheap Telegrams stocksF. W. Spalding, 8pp only; prospectus?
1886 Bloomer’s Commercial Cryptograph commercialJ. G. Bloomer, New York
1887 Telegraphic Code, The American Educational Catalogue publishingPublishers Weekly, July 30, 1887
1887 Telegraph & Cable Code, in use between John Paton & Co., New York, and — — finance, syndicationsNew York. Benjamin Graham, comp.
1888 Telegraph Code, to Ensure Secresy in the Tranmission of Telegrams 3rd ednRobert Slater
1888 Science Observer Code astronomy
Seth Carlo Chandler, Jr. and J. Ritchie, Jr.
1888 Telegraphic Mining Code miningC. Algernon Moreing, comp.
1888 Code Télégraphique Français generalA. Coste (Paris)
1889 Clave telegráfica-telefónica mercantile arreglada para el uso del comercio general commerceMonterrey (Nuevo León), México.
1889 Telegraphic Cipher
pp 50-78 of A Brief Sketch of Miner’s Coffee and Spice Mills
coffee, spiceW. H. Miner, San Francisco
1889 Unicode, The Universal Telegraphic Phrase Book (Sixth Edition) commercial, domestic and familiar
1889 Proposed Cable Chess Code chessO. E. Michaelis; 3-page article in Columbia Chess Chronicle
1889 Dictionnaire du Langage des Nombres /
Dictionary of the Numerical Language
arithmetical progressionsGeorges Boucher de Boucherville, comp.; Quebec
1890 The Universal Mining Code
miningJames Stevens, R. Sydney Corbett; George Ager (codewords)
1890 Chess Telegraphic Codes
chessEdwyn Anthony; prospectus
1891 The Anglo-American Telegraphic Code general 
1891 Private Telegraphic Code foods, grains, commoditiesWilliams, Brown &. Co., San Francisco
1891 The New General Telegraphic Mining Code Code miningC. Algernon Moreing and Thomas Neal, comps.
1893 United States Telegraphic Cipher produceJoseph H. Wilson, comp.
fruit, produce and merchandise
1893 Police Telegraph Code of England for 1893 policepp544-548 in George W. Hale, Police and Prison Cyclopaedia
1894 The Adams Cable Codex socialBoston
1894 Inter-state Cipher fruit shippers, jobbersH K Pratt, Minneapolis
1894 Private Cipher Code coffeeCastle Bros., San Francisco
1894 H. & W. Pataky’s Telegraphic Code for use in obtaining and Negociating Patents patentsBerlin
1895 McNeill’s Code. miningNew York (reprint of 1895 edition)
1895 Barnard’s Universal Criminal Cipher Code policeFloyd Shock, comp.; St. Louis, Mo.
1896 Adams Cable Codex social, generalBoston
1896 Cipher Code for Astronomical Messages astronomyin Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
1896 The Atlas Universal Travelers’ and Tourists’ Telegraphic Cipher Code generalT. Walter Hartfield
1896 (Lieber’s) Standard Telegraphic Code general 
1896 The Premier Cypher Telegraphic Code generalWilliam H. Hawke
1896 The Dynamic Chess Notation chessCode for telegraphing moves
1897 Mercuur-code / Mercury Code supplementAmsterdam; firm & company names, plantations, etc.
1897 The Robinson Telegraphic Cipher
(Revised Edition, probably later than 1897)
grain, provisionsS L Robinson, Chicago
1897 Private Telegraphic Cipher Coder investment brokerageKerr, Gordon & Co., New York
1898 Telegraphic Code
pp 529-71 General Machinery Catalogue
catalogue codes
Niles Tool Works Co., Hamilton, Ohio
1898 Hunting talking machine telegraphic code phonograph records & equipment
catalogue codes
New York: Bettini Phonograph Library
1898 Lieber’s Standard Telegraphic Code general 
1899 ABC Universal Commercial Electric Telegraphic Code generalfourth edition; American edition
1899 McNeill’s Code mining 
1899 Terminal Index for McNeill’s Code mining; like a rhyming dictionary 
1899 Private Telegraphic Code of Lunham & Moore freight, insurance, brokerage, commoditiesBaltimore; compiled by John Hinrichs
1900 Heath telegraphic cipher flouring mills & merchantsG.M. Heath, La Cross, Wisconsin
1900 The Twentieth Century Telegraphic Cipher Code cotton seed productsL. J. Guynes, New Orleans
1900 Telegraphic Code
pp 529-70 General Machinery Catalogue No. 4
catalogue codes
Niles Tool Works Co., Hamilton, Ohio
1901 ABC Telegraphic Code (fifth edition) generalW. Clauson-Thue, comp.
1901 Western Union Telegraphic Code (Universal Edition) general 
1901 Telegraph Code
three pages in Official Automobile Blue Book, Eastern Edition
motor touring 
1901 Telegraph Code F railroad, freightGrand Trunk Railway System
1902 Codigo brazileiro universal commercialW.L. Wright; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1902 The Westinghouse Code electrical 
1902 The International Cable Code (Third Edition) provisions, grainJames Gopsill’s Sons, Philadelphia
1903 Appleby’s Copyright Code
pp i-iv, Appleby’s Handbook of Machinery
machinerySection V. Steam and Electric Plant
London and New York,
1903 Telegraphic Code, Government Bonds bondsFirst National City Bank of New York
1903 The revised economy telegraphic and cable cipher code fruit and produceEdmund Peycke (see also codes of 1908, 1918)
1904 Clough’s mining code (revised) mining, investmentC.F. Clough; Shaw & Borden, Spokane
1904 A Cypher Telegraph Code
pp 93-98, George F. Chambers, The Tourist’s Pocket-Book
socialcontaining useful words and simple phrases. Seventh Edition
1904 Special Cable Code for the Use of Delegates curlingshort code, for tour of Scottish team to North America, 1902-03
1905 Omnibus: télégraphique français de poche à l’usage general, socialParis
1905 Lieber’s Bankers and Stockbrokers’ Code and Merchants’ and Shippers’ Blank Tables banking, commercialB. Franklin Lieber and Charles J. Dawson
1905 Telegraph Cipher Code
two pages in Illustrated Catalogue, Deming Company
pumps & hydraulic machinery
also codewords throughout catalogue
1906 Telegraphic Cipher Code, Gerrish System astronomy
Harvard College Observatory
1906 Standard Cipher Code of The American Railway Association transportation 
1906 Travellers’ Telegraphic Code
pp 492-99 in The Complete Pocket-Guide to Europe
travel, socialEdmund C. and Thomas L. Stedman
1907 Mining Supplement to Bentley’s Complete Phrase Code miningE. L. Bentley
1907 Standard Lumber Reference Book and Code lumberAtlanta: Franklin-Turner Co., and Benj. F. Ulmer
1907 Un Code Télégraphique Du Portrait Parlé signaletics
R. A. Reiss
1907 Postal Code (Telegraph-Cable) generalFrank Shay and Richard V Day, San Francisco
1908 McNeill’s Code (1908 Edition.) mining105,192 entries, much expanded from previous edition
1908 The Billionaire Phrase Code flexible phrasesyielding one billion sentences; 56 pages
1908 The Modern Economy Telegraphic and Cable Cipher Code green and dried fruit and produceEdmund Peycke
1908 Telegraphic Code
pp 142-44, Serums and Serum-Therapy
Wellcome’s Excerpta Therapeutica
1909 Brentano’s Telegraph and Cable Code general 
1909 Bentley’s complete phrase code generalE. L. Bentley; reprint of 1906 edition
1910 Jiao tong bi xi 交通必携 Chinese character codecommunications handbook
1911 Private Telegraphic Code steelUnited States Steel Corporation
1911 Everybody’s Pocket Code social, travelLondon; W. M. Saunders
1911 General information cable code / Llave telegrafica para informes generales business correspondencepp 9-12 in Frank Thomas, The shipping clerks’, correspondents’ and travellers’ handbook (Glasgow)
1912 Scientific Dial Primer  Andrew Hallner, comp.
1912 The Emigre (P.C.) Cable Code legalS.V. Blake and F.A.C. Redden, comps.
1912 Hartfield’s New Wall street (Newallst) Code financeJohn Hartfield
1913 Bauers Code; der neue deutsche telegramm-schlüssel commercialLudovic N. Bauer; Leipzig
1913 China Inland Mission Private Telegraph Code religious administrationShanghai
1913 The Adams Cable Codex, Tenth Edition social 
1913 Telegraph and Cable Code, W. S. Tyler and Company industrialscreens, for use in Chilean mines, etc.
1913 The Imperial Combination Code (Rubber Edition) general, and rubberLondon; Edward Barron Broomhall
1914 The Private Code and Post-Card Cypher social, humorConstance and Burges Johnson
1918 Finger Prints: The Code dactylography
chapter 6 of Harris Hawthorne Wilder and Bert Wentworth, Personal Identification
1918 Peycke’s New Ekonomik Telegraphic Cipher Code for the Fruit and Produce Trade produceEdmund Peycke
1918 The Colorado Code militaryGeneral Headquarters, AEF
1920 ABC Telegraphic Code (sixth edition) generalWilliam Clauson-Thue, edited by William Droege
1920 The Nautical Telegraph Code and Postal Guide (fourth edition) socialCaptain D. H. Bernard (?)
1921 Radiographic weather code for vessel weather observers meteorologyU.S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau
1921 Bensinger’s Special Edition of Complete Phrase Code generalE. L. Bentley; reset edition of his 1906 Phrase Code
1921 The Missions Code missionaryForeign Missions Conference of North America, New York
1921 The motor trade telegram code automotiveSociety of Motor Manufacturers and Traders; W. M. Saunders, comp.
1930 General Cipher Code express transportRailway Express Agency, New York
1930 International radio weather code for use on United States selected ships meteorologyU.S. Dept of Agriculture, Weather Bureau
1930 International Police Telegraphic Code policeEngland; Metropolitan Police District
1942 Telegraph Code
For use between bona fide spot cotton markets and offices of the Agricultural Marketing Association
cottonU.S. Department of Agriculture
1950 Korean telegraphic code book
with characters arranged by sounds in English Alphabetic Order according to the McCune-Reischauer System of Transliteration
Korean (character code)or 1952
1957 A.N.A.R.E. Code social — Antarctic serviceAustralian National Antarctic Research Expeditions

signal codes

A belated overhaul and expansion of my page(s) devoted to signal codes is currently under way.
(3 March 2015)

1763 Tactique navale, ou, Traité des Évolutions et des signaux; avec figures en taille-douce. Bigot de Morogues  
1803 Telegraphic Signals; or Marine Vocabulary Home Riggs Popham  
1808 A Treatise on Telegraphic Communication John Macdonald  
1808 A Treatise on Telegraphic Communication by Day and Night... a numerical inflected dictionary... Joseph Conolly (London)  
1816 A Code of Signals, for the Use of Merchants’ Ships in General...   compiled at sea, on board the Woodbridge London  
1817 A Treatise Explanatory of a New System of Naval, Military and Political Telegraphic Communication of General Application, in which a Comprehensive Numerical applied... John Macdonald  
1817 A system of general signals for night and day Charles Lenox Sargent (Boston)  
1817 An Essay on Universal Telegraphic Communication Joseph Conolly (London)  
1818 An Improved System of Telegraphic Communication... a Numerical Portable Dictionary Thomas Lynn  
1826 A code of signals for the use of vessels employed in the merchant service Marryat, 4th edn.  
1828 A New Code of Telegraphic Signals for Yachts and Pleasure Boats Richard B. Wynne  
1828 A New System of Signals, By which Colours May be Wholly Dispensed With Henry Raper  
1832 The United States Telegraph Vocabulary, being an appendix to Elford’s Marine Telegraph Signal Book. John R. Parker 
1833 The Hooghly River Code, Adapted for General Use of the Semaphore Stations on or near its banks... Charles L. Smart. Calcutta.  
1835 The Universal Sea Language being a complete code of signals for day and night. Levin Joergen Rohde, London 
1835 A Code of Universal Naval Signals H. Cranmer Phillipps 
1836 The New Semaphoric Signal Book, in Three Parts John R. Parker 
1840 Langue Télégraphique Universelle. Code de Signaux... (Marryat) Paris; new edition, corrected and enlarged 
18–– Langue Télégraphique Universelle ou Code de Signaux... (Marryat) Paris; E. et M. Luscomben.d.
1845 The Telegraph Dictionary, and Seamen’s Signal Book Henry J. Rogers 
1847 A Code of Signals Marryat; 10th edn, entirely revised and corrected 
1848 Signal Book for Boston Harbor Hudson & Smith 
1851 Code of Signals for the use of Vessels Employed in the Merchant Service Marryat; 11th edn, entirely revised and corrected 
1854 Universal Code of Signals for The Merchant Marine of All Nations Marryat, Richardson; 12th edn 
1855 Code international: Télégraphie nautique Reynold; naval and commercial 
1855 Reynold’s Code. Polyglot Nautical Telegraph Reynold-Chauvancy; revised by F. H. Simpkinson 
1857 The Companion to The Commercial Code of Signals J. T. Forster, latitude and longitude (only) 
1858 Ward’s Code of Signal Telegraph for Ocean Marine Service, alphabetically arranged... William Henry Ward 
1861 The Ocean Marine Telegraph William Henry Ward 
1864 Universal Code of Signals Marryat, Richardson 
1866 Universal Code of Signals Marryat, Richardson 
1866 Code Universel de Signaux Marryat, Richardson 
1866 International Day, Night, and Fog Signal Telegraph William Henry Ward 
1866 International Day, Night, and Fog Signal Telegraph William Henry Ward; second edition 
1868 Alphabetical Code of Signals C. W. Warden, comp. Second edition. Calcutta  
1869 Universal Code of Signals Marryat, Richardson 

recent comments, additions

Added W. S. Wetmore, General Commercial Telegraphic Code (Shanghae, 1875) (5 July 2017)

The National Diet Library in Japan has digitized many (most?) of the telegraphic codes in its collection; these are described by Tomokiyo Satoshi in his page(s) covering Japanese telegraphic codes, at 日本の電信暗号 and Japanese Telegraph Codes (abridged version, in English).
(1 August 2014; these are new URLs for this content)

The NDL codes — in Japanese and (some) in English — are not downloadable, nor are the texts searchable. Some are scanned from microforms; others directly from the books. But bottom line: their Digital Collection is a great resource. NDL’s online catalog can be searched by guest login.

I examined a number of NDL’s codes over four or five days in July and August 2014, and will report on these in due course. Among my discoveries were (1) quite thorough textbooks for code clerks, and (2) treatises on coding, and on the compilation of new codes suiting users’ specific subject domains (1890s through the 1930s). These include —

  1. Kotaro Ueda (上田貢太郎). 外国為替と電信暗号 (Foreign currency exchange and telegraphic code). (Osaka, 1895), 87pp.
  2. Tomojiro Imai (今井, 友次郎). 電信暗号講義要領 (Lecture on essentials of telegraphic codes). (Tokyo: Waseda University, 1910), 98 pages
    chapters: Five Figure Codes, Six Figure Codes, Figure Code for Market Report, and Figure Code for Indents
  3. Kotaro Ueda (上田貢太郎). Practical examples for compiling a private code in conjunction with any 10 or 12 figure cypher code. (Kobe, 1912)
  4. Kenji Sakai. 外国貿易事務研究 : 附・暗号電信作例及説明 (Foreign trade office studies, Telegraphic codes, examples and explanations) (Kobe, 1920), 128 pages
  5. Shoji Endo. Foreign code telegram practice (外國暗號電報の作り方、解き方) : a text book for the use of commercial students. (1934), 29 pages
  6. Takeo Hara (1895 – ?). A text-book of telegraphic codes for use in schools : containing general five-letter code and self-checking two-letter code. (Kyoto, 1935), 104 pages
  7. Kashichi Sakai (酒井, 嘉七) (1903-1946). 外国電信係読本 : 附・実用二文字標準補助暗号書 / Cable Clerk Reader (Kobe, 1939)
    containing a two-letter supplementary code (and, from English title page): an all-consonant two-letter supplementary code, 10- and 14-figure codes, and condenser. (180pp)

The links to catalog entries for these titles are for my convenience only, and will be changed for unregistered users to access. (3 March 2015)

Added the first (of what will hopefully be many) scans from BNF/Gallica — the (Russell) Hunting talking machine telegraphic code (1898).
(27 July 2014)
Added International Police Telegraphic code (1930).
(2 August 2014)
Added The Universal Mining Code (1890, BL copy).
(16 July 2015)
Added A New System of Signals, By which Colours May be Wholly Dispensed With (1828, NYPL copy).
(22 July 2015)

I have belatedly come to realize that many (most? all?) of the google scans are not available for viewing (or downloading) outside of the United States. This may also be the case for scans at
(29 June 2014)

about this list

Presented above is a list of telegraphic and signal codes for which I have found a digital version. Each title links to more detailed information (bibliographic and otherwise) elsewhere in this website, and to external URLs of the scans themselves. Because a digital (and searchable) versions exists, does not mean it is available everywhere, alas; it now appears that most of the google scans can be accessed only within the United States.

I have separated the directory and these notes as a first step in overhauling what has become an increasingly unwieldy, and slow-loading, page. As time allows, I will create separate pages for notes on individual codes, successive editions of the same code, and groups of codes, e.g., cotton, police, and even compiler (e.g., Henry Harvey, Frederic George McCutcheon).

A first effort in this direction is a page devoted to the seven editions of the ABC Telegraphic Code that were published between 1873 and 1936; other pages are devoted to cotton codes, the produce codes of Edmund Peycke, and railroad codes. Most recently I have commenced a page devoted to catalogue codes — telegraphic codes that are integrated within manufacturers’ catalogues. On some of those specialized pages, I list, discuss and show relevant examples even from codes for which no scan is available.

This index to scans will remain at this URL, and will continue to be arranged chronologically. Many, even most, codes might fall under several categories (more than one topic, more than one system of arrangement, etc.). What may happen over time is that pages devoted to those respective topics/systems would list and treat all such codes under their heading, and that any single code might be treated on more than one page. Alternatively, I might simply do cross-referencing.

Initially, this page was undertaken mainly for personal convenience. What wasn’t much more than a list has evolved. The level of detail is uneven; inconsistencies in bibliographic information are legion. Mea culpa.

Here are listed 201 codes — 166 telegraphic and 35 signal codes. These are a very small proportion of all the codes that existed. What is missing? The biggest hole is specialized, private codes that are not ordinarily found in library stacks. These were issued in small, sometimes very small editions; sometimes they were typewritten and mimeographed; some were handwritten. Some were immense, some small. I emphasize that many of the missing codes were structured differently than the predominantly dictionary codes evidenced here. They were figure codes, whereby 10 or 12 figure groups would be assembled piece by piece, from a sequence of tables, that sequence being announced at the head of the message. The protocols of assembling messages could be complicated, but efficient for expert and frequent users.

Examples of those more complex figure codes include the C. W. S. Private Cable Code Book (Co-operative Wholesale Society, Manchester, 1907) and Code Telegraphique de M. M. Gerin, Rykebus & Cie. (1908). Specimen pages and discussions for these and other codes can be found via this directory of examples.

The separation of telegraphic and signal codes is arbitrary. These obviously differed in usage, domain, and in the nature of the signals, but there was overlap and mutual influence in the areas of phrase vocabulary and arrangement.

Comments, corrections and suggested additions are welcome.
John McVey

Related content can be found via the index to this material, at
telegraphic codes and message practice.