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that it could remain so fixed

Figure 6.
(cropped from border and page; scan misses right edge)
illustrating E. M. Wedderburn. "An Experimental Investigation of the Temperature Changes occurring in Fresh-Water Lochs." Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 28 (1907) : 2-20
Stanford copy, no date of digitization

Figure 6 shows three photographs to illustrate the secondary return current. A layer of fresh water coloured black was introduced over uncoloured brine. Black stain was then introduced into the bottom of the trough by means of a pipette, and a current of air driven along the upper surface. The arrow on the photograph shows the direction of this wind, and it will be seen that the black stain at the bottom of the trough has in each case tailed out in the same direction as the wind, showing the existence of a current at the bottom of the trough in the same direction as the wind. The photographs were taken at night, a limelight lantern being used to illuminate the water.
pp 12-13

Figure 7 (facing image shown above) shows the slosh of currents.

He saw the rocky island recede and marvelled that it could remain so fixed with all the winds and tides and currents that pressed upon it.
— ex Georgina Harding. The Solitude of Thomas Cave (2007) : 125

22 February 2014
tags: E. M. Wedderburn; Georgina Harding; heat; stains; water; wind