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this colossal waste, both below and above the surface

Fig. 1. Flushing culm into the troughs which feed the conveyors.
(cropped, softly, from its borders, otherwise unmolested)
ex George W. Harris. “Anthracite-Washeries.” Transactions of the AIME (American Institute of Mining Engineers). 36 (1906) : 610-625
University of California copy, digitized October 30, 2012

“In the earlier period of anthracite-mining, much coal was wasted, both underground and in the culm-banks on the surface. Such waste is common in the development of new mining districts, in which, as a rule, only the richest material can be profitably treated. In the anthracite-region, special causes operated to increase this evil...”

and epigram p 610

1 February 2015

this evil; coal; culm; mining; waste; new districts; water
G. W. Harris, “Anthracite-Washeries” (1906)