Fig. 6 — Preparing to throw mass. A short step has been taken in direction of throw.
Fig. 7 — Mass has been thrown. Note strained position in effort to throw a long distance with short-hand shovel.
Fig. 8 — Position when starting to penetrate mass with long-handle shovel.
Fig. 9 — Mass has been penetrated. Note easy position of man.
ex G. Townsend Harley, “A Study of Shoveling as Applied to Mining.” Transactions of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers 61 (1919): 147-187, discussion continued at 706-708
“During the period of preliminary work, it was discovered that the work of a shoveler can be classified into the following divisions, each susceptible to comprehensive study and analysis, and to each of which can be given a definite relative time value:
Time spent actually shoveling, which may be divided into: Penetrating mass, lifting mass, throwing mass, and return to start of first motion.
Time spent picking down, considered as a rest.
Tramming and dumping time, with wheelbarrow or car.
Time spent resting, divided into: Definite rest periods and delays due to interferences, blasting, men and supplies passing, etc.
Time spent other than in shoveling...”
performance; shoveling; G. Townsend Harley, “A Study of Shoveling as Applied to Mining” (1919)