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was released so rapidly that it formed a vacuum


Plate IX. Damage to Pilarcitos 30-inch pipe line by earthquake. A. Offset.
Photographs submitted by Frank Soulé,
(cropped from border and page)
ex The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of April 18, 1906 and their effects on strucures and structural materials. Reports by Grove Karl Gilbert, Richard Lewis Humphrey, John Stephen Sewell, and Frank Soulé. With preface by Joseph Austin Holmes, In Charge of Technologic Branch.
USGS Bulletin No. 324. Series R, Structural Materials, 1. 1907
Stanford copy, no date of digitization

...which caused this conduit to collapse.

The principal breaks in the Pilarcitos conduit, which was so badly damaged that the company decided to abandon it, were examined.

pp 17-18

6 May 2014

conduit; damage; failure; infrastructure; offset; sub-architecture; tectonics
G. K. Gilbert et al